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ReS animalia

CLINICA VETERINARIA

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PRIMAVERA ALLE PORTE parte 4

Posted on April 16, 2018 at 9:35 AM

"PRIMAVERA ALLE PORTE, APPUNTAMENTO DAL VETERINARIO"

Parte 4: filaria

Le filarie sono dei nematodi (vermi), in particolare Dirofilaria immitis è l'agente causale della filariosi cardiopolmonare del cane e del gatto, malattia grave potenzialmente mortale (la prevalenza nel gatto è circa un decimo di quella che si osserva nel cane).

Il vettore di questa malattia è la comune zanzara, essa con un pasto di sangue su un animale infetto assume una microfilaria dal torrente circolatorio questa poi si sviluppa nell'organismo del vettore per poi essere trasmessa nuovamente durante le successive punture sui nostri cani.

In questi ultimi le larve infestanti iniziano una lunga migrazione per raggiungere le arterie polmonari ed il cuore (vedi foto), dove diventano adulte e si riproducono per mandare nuovamente microfilarie in giro per il torrente circolatorio.

La frequenza di trasmissione e la diffusione della malattia dipendono da fattori ambientali quali la temperatura (stagionalità primaverile/estiva), la densità dei vettori presenti sul territorio e la presenza di animali infetti. Il movimento di cani infestati, per turismo o adozione, ha aumentato la diffusione della malattia.

I sintomi della malattia si manifestano gradualmente e possono esordire con una tosse cronica seguita da moderata-grave dispnea, debolezza e a volte episodi sincopali (perdita transitoria della coscienza) dopo l'esercizio. A questo stadio all'ascultazione il veterinario può sentire suoni cardiaci anomali e successivamente con l'instaurarsi dell'insufficienza cardiaca si osservano versamento addominale, anoressia, perdita di peso e disidratazione. La morte improvvisa è rara, nei casi di tromboembolismo acuto causato dalla morte improvvisa di vermi adulti si possono avere gravi crisi respiratorie.

La maggior parte dei gatti rimane asintomatica per lungo tempo e può andare incontro a guarigione spontanea, alcuni soggetti però sviluppano segni clinici in modo iperacuto; la morte improvvisa in soggetti apparentemente sani non è infrequente.

La filariosi cardiopolmonare può essere diagnosticata tramite veloci test ambulatoriali, altri esami poi sono necessari per stabilire la gravità della malattia e la scelta delle appropriate opzioni di trattamento.

La prevenzione (circa marzo-ottobre) è basata su fialette repellenti da mettere sulla cute (spesso le stesse che hanno un'azione contro pulci, zecche e leishmania) o in sostituzione a queste anche i collari e su compresse da dare mensilmente per via orale che uccidono eventuali microfilarie e che hanno azione retroattiva per i 30 giorni precedenti. Vi è anche un farmaco iniettabile che dura circa 6/12 mesi che può sostituire le compresse.

Per proteggere i nostri animali è importante tenerli al chiuso durante le ore crepuscolari e notturne, momento della giornata con maggiore attività delle zanzare.


 

 

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